Grade 2 Learners Materials / Learning Materials

Some of the Learning Materials Content Highlights:There are three major applications of the macro-skills of the language (Understanding of Cultures; Understanding Language; and Processes and Strategies). They are described as the knowledge and skill areas which are essential to effective language use demonstrated through the language macro-skills.


1. UNDERSTANDING CULTURES. Learning language through text types and literary appreciation exposes learners to different cultures of the world, including one’s culture. Learners develop sociolinguistic and sociocultural understandings and apply them to their use of the language (Mother Tongue, Filipino, and English). Sociolinguistic understanding refers to appropriate language use. It is defined in this document as taking into account the social significance of linguistic forms and the linguistic implications of social facts. Language is a complex social practice that reflects and reinforces shared understandings about appropriate actions, values, beliefs and attitudes within a community. These shared understandings determine not only what is communicated and when and how it is communicated, but also who does the communicating. These collectively constitute the sociolinguistic features of language.


Sociocultural understanding refers to knowing about the language speaking communities. It means taking into account the non-linguistic features in the life of a society. Learners broaden their frame of reference beyond their own social and cultural experiences. They gain insights into different values and belief systems and acknowledge the cultural contexts which underpin them. They make sense of the social fabric of the target language community. They understand that the natural and physical environments – as well as the social, economic, historical and political environments – influence the language speaking groups and their cultural traditions.


2. UNDERSTANDING LANGUAGE. Learners apply their knowledge of the system of the language to assist them to make meaning and to create meaning. They come to recognize the patterns and rules of the language which emerge as they interact with a plethora of texts (literary and informational) to make meaning. They apply this knowledge and understanding to create their own spoken, written and visual texts. Differences in language systems are expressed in a variety of ways: for example, in grammatical differentiations, variations in word order, word selection, or general stylistic variations in texts. By comparing the system of the language with the systems of other languages, students understand that each language is different, but has identifiable patterns within its own system.


3. PROCESS AND STRATEGIES. Learners select from a repertoire of processes and strategies by reflecting on their understanding of the way language works for a variety of purposes in a range of contexts. They deliberate on how they use language and apply different language strategies, depending on their purpose, context and audience. They use language as a way of coming to grips with new ideas, resolving difficulties or solving problems. They use strategies such as brainstorming and discussion as a way of developing ideas. They experiment, take risks and make approximations with language as a way of developing their language skills. They clarify what they need to know when seeking information for particular purposes. They use key-word searches and their understanding of the conventions of informational texts such as tables of contents, headings, indexes, forewords and glossaries as aids in locating information. They assess the usefulness of information for particular purposes. They treat information and ideas critically and evaluate information in terms of its reliability and currency. They make notes and graphic representations of information and combine information from different sources into a coherent whole by summarizing, comparing and synthesizing.


Learners reflect on ethical considerations in the use of ideas and information. They recognize the importance of attributing sources of ideas and information, and of presenting or representing ideas and information in ways which are not misleading. They use quotation and sourcing conventions appropriately. They take into account the possible effects of and responses to the presentation of ideas and information.



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These instructional materials were collaboratively developed and reviewed by educators from public and private schools, colleges, and/or universities. We encourage teachers and other education stakeholders to email their feedback, comments, and recommendations to the Department of Education

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